cbse Chapter 3 metals and nonmetals class 10 notes , all the important things cover from ncert book in details. Here we provide best notes of chapter 3 class 10 metals and non metals according to the new cbse pattern, also provide notes of science .
new cbse pattern contain 20 marks of mcq .
metals and nonmetals class 10 details about
So lets start with the detailed review of metals so what is metals ? properties of metals .
what is metals :- Metals are the elements which can conduct heat and electricity, Generally it is ductile or malleable and metals can loose electron to form positive ions, Metals are also called electropositive elements . Ex of metals are Copper (Cu) , Zinc ( Zn ) ,Aluminium ( Al ) , Silver ( Ag) , Gold (Au) , Sodium ( Na ) , Lead ( Pb ) , Potassium ( K ) , Calcium ( Ca ) Etc .
lets discuss about the properties of metals and metal oxide , Chemical and physical properties of metals and non metals class 10th
Lets discuss Physical properties of metals
The properties of metals are :- Malleable , ductility , hard , sonorous , lustrous , conductivity , strength , melting and boiling point , density , colour .
|Properties of metals||Its defination|
|Malleable||Its a property of metal which means we can convert the metals into thin sheet by beaten it ,|
This property is very useful to craft the big vehicle , ship and plane aluminium foil and etc.
|ductility||This property of metal which means we can convert the metals into thin wire which is use to |
electrical wire copper wire aluminium wire and etc
|hard||Metals are generally hard except alkali metals potassium lithium sodium etc, we can’t break it |
but alkali metals can be cut down by knife
|sonorous||Metals produce ringing sound its also called metallic sound its use in make musical instruments|
|lustrous||Metals have a shiny surface except sodium potassium|
|strength||Metals are generally strong and its strength is very high except some metal like sodium potassium|
|melting and boiling point||The point of melting and boiling of metal is high except potassium and sodium metals |
there boiling point is low
|colour||Most of metals found in grey colour excluding gold and copper|
|conductivity||Metals are good conductor of heat and electricity its used to make electric and heat appliances|
|density||There density is high|
Physical properties of metals are now done next we discuss about the chemical properties of metals i hope you guys enjoying and learn something from my post .
lets discuss Chemical properties of metals
Chemical properties of metals :- When metal reacts with oxygen its generally form the metal oxide .
metal + oxygen —> metal oxides Examples :- Iron react with oxygen its form iron oxide :- iron ( fe ) + oxygen ( o ) —> feO
sodium and potassium is alkali metals which reacts with oxygen and produce heat .
when sodium reacts with oxygen its form 4Na + O2 —–> 2Na2O
when potassium reacts with oxygen its form 4K + O2 —–> 2K2O
Reaction of copper with oxygen :- copper is metal which does not react with oxygen in room temperature but when we heat it gives us oxide Ex :- 2cu + O2 —–> 2cuO
All metal are does not react with oxygen even temperature is high like gold and silver . they are least reactive .
Reaction of metals with with water :- when metals reacts with water its produce metal hydroxide and release hydrogen as form of gas . Metal + water —–> metal hydroxide + hydrogen
Most of metals does not react with water excepts alkalis metal which is highly reactive with water .
Reaction of calcium with water :- when calcium react with acid its makes calcium hydroxide and produce heat and release hydrogen gas. calcium ( ca ) + water ( H2O) ——> calcium hydroxide ( Ca(OH)2 ) + H2 + heat
Reaction of sodium with water :- when sodium react with acid its makes sodium hydroxide and produce heat and release hydrogen gas. sodium ( Na ) + water ( H2O) ——> sodium hydroxide ( NaOH ) + H2 + heat
when , Reaction of magnesium with water :- magnesium react with metals slowly and make magnesium hydroxide and release hydrogen gas .
magnesium (mg) + water ( H2O) —-> magnesium hydroxide ( mg(OH)2 ) + H2
but when we pass steam with magnesium its form magnesium oxide and hydrogen gas
magnesium (mg) + water ( H2O) —-> magnesium oxide ( MgO ) + H2
Reaction of metal with water
|Reaction of metals with water||Produce|
|Aluminium with water |
|aluminium least react with cold water but when it passed with steam its react and|
produce aluminium oxide and hydrogen gas
Al2O3 + 2H2
|Zinc with water |
Zn + H2O
|Zinc does not react with cold water its reacts when heat is passed its produce Zinc oxide |
and hydrogen gas
ZnO + H2
|Iron with water |
3Fe + 4H2O
|reaction of iron with cold water is slow but its show after long time its form rust when it react|
with moisture present in air make iron oxide and release hydrogen gas
Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) are heavy than water but still float : Calcium and Magnesium float over water surface because hydrogen gas is released when these metals react with water.= It is in the form of bubbles which stick on the metal surface. Therefore, they float over it.
calcium ( ca ) + water ( H2O) ——> calcium hydroxide ( Ca(OH)2 ) + H2 + heat
Other metals do not react with water or react very slowly. copper, silver , lead and gold do not react with steam. The order of reactivity of different metals towards water may be written as :
K > Na > Ca > Mg > Al > Zn > Fe > Pb > Cu > Ag > Au
Reaction of metals with acid :-
when metals are react with acid its produce salt and hydrogen gas .This reaction is take place when acid were diluted
Metals + diluted acid ——-> Metal salt + hydrogen
|Reaction of metals with acid||Produce|
|when diluted acid react with sodium metal |
sodium metal + hydrochloric acid
|when diluted hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium metal its produce sodium chloride and |
hydrogen gas were release
2Na + 2HCl ——> 2NaCl + H2
|when diluted acid react with zinc metal |
zinc metal + sulphuric acid
|when diluted sulphuric acid reacts with metal its produce zinc sulphate and hydrogen gas |
Zn + H2SO4 ——–> ZnSO4 + H2
|diluted acid react magnesium metal |
magnesium metal + hydrochloric acid
|Reaction of diluted hydrochloric acid and magnesium metal produce magnesium chloride |
and hydrogen gas
Mg + HCL ———> MgCl2 + H2
when we mix metal into nitric acid its not produce hydrogen gas :-
Nitric acid having a good oxidising agent which oxidise the hydrogen gas and convert into water and coveted itself into oxide as nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide nitrous oxide .
Copper, gold, silver are also known as noble metals. These metals do not react with water or dilute acids.
The order of reactivity of metal towards dilute hydrochloric acid or sulphuric acid is in the order;
K > Na > Ca > Mg > Al > Zn > Fe > Cu > Hg > Ag
What is metal oxide and reaction of metal oxide
Metal oxide Chemical Properties: Nature of metal oxide is basic . its turn red litmus paper into blue . its form when metals react with oxygen
Reaction of Metal oxides with Water: Most of the metal oxide are not soluble in water. only Alkali metal oxides are soluble in water. Alkali metals when it dissolved in water its give strong base .
Reaction of Sodium oxide with Water: Sodium oxide gives sodium hydroxide when reacts with water.
Na2O + H20 ———> 2NaOH
Reaction of Potassium oxide with Water: Potassium oxide gives potassium hydroxide when reacts with water.
K2O + H2O ——–> 2KOH
Reaction of Zinc oxide and Aluminium oxide: Aluminium oxide and zinc oxide are insoluble in water. Aluminium oxide and zinc oxide are amphoteric in nature..
Amphoteric substance means which react like both nature acidic or basic , when it react with acid its behave like base and when we react with base its react like acid
When zinc oxide reacts with sodium hydroxide, it behaves like an acid. reaction of zinc oxide and sodium hydroxide form sodium zincate and water are.
ZnO + 2NaOH ——–> Na2ZnO2 + H2O
Zinc oxide behaves like a base when reacts with diluted HCl acid . Its gives zinc chloride and water on reaction with hydrochloric acid.
ZnO + @HCl ——> ZnCl2 + H2O
Some other experiments or reaction , aluminium oxide behaves like a base when reacts with diluted acid and behaves like acid when reacts with a base.
Aluminium oxide gives sodium aluminate and water when its reacts with sodium hydroxide.
Al2O3 + 2NaOH ——-> 2NaAlO2 + H2O
Aluminium oxide gives aluminium chloride and water when its reacts with hydrochloric acid.
Al2O3 + 6HCl ——-> 2AlCl3 + 3H2O
Lets discuss about the reactivity series :-
Reactivity Series of Metals: Its describe the reactivity or intensity of metals according to their reaction . it decrease from top to bottom in the top metal its most reactive and at bottom its less reactive .
In the series of reactivity, copper, gold, and silver are at the bottom and They are least reactive. These metals are also known as Noble metals. Potassium is at the top of the series and It is most reactive.
Reactivity of some metals are given in descending order :
K > Na > Ca > Mg > Al > Zn > Fe > Pb > Cu
Reaction of metals with the solution of other metal salts :-
: Reaction of metals with the solution of other metal salt is a displacement reaction. this type of reaction happen when more reactive metal displaces the less reactive metal from its salt
Metal A + Salt of metal B → Salt of metal A + Metal B
Iron displaces copper from copper sulphate solution.
Fe + CusO4 ———-. FeSO4 + Cu
Similarly, aluminium and zinc displace copper from the solution of copper sulphate.
2Al + 3CuSO4 ——–> Al2 ( SO4)3 + 3Cu
Zn+ CuSO4 ——–> ZnSO4 + Cu
Metals reaction with other metal salts
Here all the above examples , iron, aluminium and zinc are more reactive than copper. So they are displace copper from its salt solution.
When copper is dipped in the solution of silver nitrate, it displaces silver and forms copper nitrate.
Cu + 2AgNO3 ——–> Cu(NO3)2 + 2Ag
In the reaction, copper is more reactive than silver and hence, displaces silver from silver nitrate solution.
When we put silver in copper sulphate its does not do anything because silver is less reactive then copper then nothing will happen
Ag + CuSO4 ———–> No reaction
as do with gold when we dipped gold in the solution of copper nitrate, no reaction takes place because copper is more reactive than gold.
Au + CuSO4 ———> No reaction
no reaction takes place when copper is dipped in the solution of aluminium nitrate because copper is less reactive than aluminium. as same as above reaction
Al(NO3)3 + Cu ———-> No reaction
Non metal and properties from class 10 metals and non metals
lets discuss about the non metal properties i hope you guys learning much from above paragraph so lets get started
Non metals :- Non metal are those which is not the conductor of heat and electricity it is neither ductile or nor malleable. when metal and non metal react which each other its make a chemical bond also known as ionic bond or co valent bond. lets discuss about the physical properties of non metals and chemical properties of non metal , non metal oxides.
some examples of non metals :- sulphur (S) , carbon (C), Phosphorous (P),Hydrogen (H), Silicon (Si), Oxygen (O), Nitrogen (N), Chlorine (Cl), Bromine (Br), Neon (Ne) and Argon (Ar) etc.
non metals can gain electron to form negative ions, non Metals are also called electronegative elements.
Lets discuss Physical properties of Non metals
The properties of non metals are :- Malleable , ductility , hard , sonorous , lustrous , conductivity , strength , melting and boiling point , density , colour .
|Properties of non metals||Its defination|
|Malleable||They are not malleable|
|ductility||They are nor ductile|
|hard||They are not hard except diamond|
|sonorous||They can’t produce sound|
|lustrous||non metal are dull except diamond and iodine|
|strength||they are not harder except diamond|
|melting and boiling point||The point of melting and boiling of metal is low except diamond|
|colour||found in many colour|
|conductivity||non Metals are bad conductor of heat and electricity excepts graphite|
|density||There density is low|
lets discuss about the Chemical properties of Non-metals
From the chapter of class 10 metals and non metals
1. Reaction of Non-metals with Oxygen: when we react non metal with oxygen its make non metal oxide
Non-metal + Oxygen ——> Non-metallic oxide
when carbon react with oxygen it makes carbon dioxide and heat also produce .
C + O2 ——> CO2 + Heat
When carbon in burnt in insufficent supply of air it make carbon monoxide which is a harmful for us or living organisms .its cause of fatality
2C+ O2 ——-> 2CO + Heat
When we react sulphur with oxygen its make sulphur dioxide its also give heat
S + O2 ——–> SO2
When hydrogen reacts with oxygen it gives water.
H2 + O2 ——> H2O
Non-metallic Oxide: Non-metallic oxides are acidic in nature. The solution of non-metal oxides turns blue litmus red.
Carbon dioxide gives carbonic acid when dissolved in water.
Co2 + H2O ——> H2CO3
Sulphur dioxide gives sulphurous acid when dissolved in water.
SO2 + H2O ——–> H2SO3
Sulphur dioxide gives sulphuric acid when reacts with oxygen.
2SO2 + O2 ——–> 2SO3
SO3 + H2O ——–> H2SO4
Reaction of Non-metal with Chlorine:
When non metal react with chlorine its make non metal chloride
Non-metal + Chlorine → Non-metal chloride
Hydrogen gives hydrogen chloride and phosphorous gives phosphorous trichloride when reacting with chlorine.
H2 + Cl2 ——–> 2HCl
Reaction of Non-metals with Hydrogen: Non-metals reactive with hydrogen to form covalent hydrides.
Non-metal + Hydrogen → Covalent Hydride
Sulphur combines with hydrogen to form a covalent hydride is called Hydrogen sulphide.
H2 + S ——–> H2S
Nitrogen combines with hydrogen in presence of an iron catalyst to form covalent hydride ammonia.
N + H2 ——-> NH3
Non metal does not react with acid and water
Reaction of metals and nonmetals class 10 notes: Many metals form ionic bonds when they react with non-metals. Compounds so formed are known as Ionic Compounds.
Ions: Positive or negative charged atoms are known as ions. Ions are formed because of loss or gain of electrons. Atoms form ions obtain by the electronic configuration of the nearest noble gas.
Positive ion: A positive ion is formed because of the loss of electrons by an atom.
Following are some examples of positive ions:
Sodium forms sodium ion because of the loss of one electron. Because of the loss of one electron, one positive charge comes over sodium.
Na ——–> Na+ + e-
Magnesium forms positive ion because of the loss of two electrons. Two positive charges come over magnesium because of loss of two electrons.
Mg ———> Mg 2+ + 2e-
Negative ion: when a electron gain nagative ion is form
Some examples are given below :
chlorine gas have gain one electron to form a negative covalent.
Cl + e- ——–> Cl-
Ionic bonds explanations
Ionic Bonds: Ionic bonds are formed because of transfer of electrons from metal to non metal. In this course, metals get positive charge because of transfer of electrons and non-metal gets negative charge because of acceptance of electrons. In other words, bond formed between positive and negative ion is called Ionic Bond.
Since, a compound is electrically neutral, so to form an ionic compound, negative and positive both ions must be combined.
Formation of magnesium chloride and sodium chloride
Magnesium loose their electron to make positive ion magnesium have 2 electron on their valence shell
Mg —————> Mg2+ + e-
(2,8,2) (2,8) magnesium ion
chlorine gain electron to make a negative ion chlorine have 7 electron in their last valence shell
Cl2 + 2e- ——————-> 2Cl-
(2,8,7) ( 2,8,8 ) chlorine ion
sodium loose their electron to make positive ion sodium have 2 electron on their valence shell
Na —————> Na+ + e-
(2,8,1) (2,8) sodium ion
chlorine gain electron to make a negative ion chlorine have 7 electron in their last valence shell
Cl2 + 2e- ——————-> 2Cl-
(2,8,7) ( 2,8,8 ) chlorine ion
How they bond :- Magnesium has two valence electron and chlorine has seven valence electrons. magnesium requires losing two electron to obtain stable configuration and chlorine requires gaining one electron in order to obtain stable electronic configuration. Thus, in order to obtain stable configuration, magnesium transfers one electron to chlorine.
After loss of one electron, magnesium need to loose one more so it transfer another electron to another chlorine and gets one positive charge (+) and chlorine gets one negative charge after gain of one electron . Magnesium chloride is formed because of transfer of electrons. Thus, ionic bond is formed between magnesium and chlorine. Since, magnesium chloride is formed because of ionic bond, thus, it is called Ionic compound. similarly ,sodium chloride (NaCl) is formed.
Lets discuss about the properties of ionic compound
from metals and nonmetals class 10 notes were provide you the detail review of ionic compound
They have greater force of attraction due to they have strong electrostatic forces of attraction .
Oppositely charge ions attracted each other
They are hard because of electrostatic force its made ionic compound hard
Melting and boiling point is high
Soluble in water not soluble in kerosene and petrol
they do no conduct electricity in solid state
They conduct electricity when in liquid state or in solution because of electron were free
Occurrence of metal :-
From the chapter of metals and nonmetals class 10 notes Metal are naturally occur in the land and sea water . land is the high source of metal where metal form in their different form , sea water contain salts of different type like magnesium chloride sodium chloride etc . Extraction of metal from least reactive, middle reactive and high reactive metals also discuss about minerals and ores .
Minerals :- Minerals are the naturally occurs compound they are also called inorganic compound
ores :- mineral of which metal can be extracted for profit is called ore for example iron ore, sulphur ore, oxide ore etc
least reactive metals :- metals which are at bottom of their series like gold and platinum and silver they general found in free state But silver and cooper is found in sulphide state and oxide state
Middle reactive metals :-Metals found in the middle of reactivity series, such as Zn, Fe, Pb, etc. are usually found in the form of oxides, sulphides or carbonates.
High reactive metals :-Metals found at the top of the reactivity series are never found in free-state as they are very reactive, example; K, Na, Ca, Mg and Al, etc.
Many metals are found in the form of oxides because oxygen is abundant in nature and is very reactive
Gangue :- Impurities found in naturally in ores like soil ,sand etc are called gangue ; we need remove from ore
Extracting metals from their ore
Metallurgy ;- steps of processing where we get metals frim their respective ore . the metal categories in three parts according to their reactivity
The steps are Enrichment of ore , obtaining metal from enriched ore , refining of impure metal to obtain pure metal .
Extracting metals from low reactivity series :- By heating the ores in air at high temperature
mercury in cinnabar :- 2HgS + 3 O2 ———-> 2HgO + 2 SO2
2HgO ————–> 2Hg + O2
copper from copper sulphide : Cu2S + O2 ———-> 2Cu2O + 2SO2
2Cu2O + Cu2S ———-> 6Cu + So2
Extraction of Metals of Middle Reactivity:
Iron, zinc, lead, etc. are found in the form of carbonate or sulphide ores. Carbonate or sulphide ores of metals are first converted into oxides and then oxides are reduced to respective metals.
Extraction of Zinc: Zinc blende (ZnS: zinc sulphide) and smithsonite or zinc spar or calamine (ZnCO3: zinc carbonate) are ores of zinc. Zinc blende is roasted to be converted into zinc oxide. Zinc spar is put under calcination to be converted into zinc oxide.
2ZnS + 3O2 ——–> 2ZnO + 2SO2
ZnCO3 ———> ZnO + Co2
Zinc oxide so obtained is reduced to zinc metal by heating with carbon ( is work like reduction .)
ZnO + C ——–> Zn + Co
Extraction of Iron from Haematite (Fe2O3): Haematite ore is heated with carbon to be reduced to iron metal.
Fe2O3 + 3C ———> 4Fe + 3CO2
Extraction of Lead from Lead oxide: Lead oxide is heated with carbon to be reduced to lead metal.
2Pbo + C ———–> 2Pb + Co2
Reduction of Metal oxide by Heating with Aluminium: Metal oxides are heated with aluminium (a reducing agent) to be reduced to metal. Following is an example: Manganese dioxide and copper oxide are reduced to respective metals when heated with aluminium.
3MnO2 + 4Al ————. 3Mn + 2Al2O3
3CuO + 2Al ——–> 3Cu + Al2O3 + heat
Thermite Reaction: Ferric oxide; when heated with aluminium; is reduced to iron metal. In this reaction, a lot of heat is produced. The thermite reaction is used in the welding of electric conductors, iron joints, etc. such as joints in railway tracks. This is also known as Thermite Welding (TW).
Fe2O3 + 2Al ———-> 2Fe + Al2O3 + H
Extraction of Metals of High Reactivity:
Metals of high reactivity; such as sodium, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, etc. are extracted from their ores by electrolytic reduction. These metals cannot be reduced using carbon because carbon is less reactive than them.
Electrolytic Reduction: Electric current is passed through the molten state of metal ores. Metal being positively charged is deposited over the cathode.
Example: When an electric current is passed through molten state or solution of sodium chloride, sodium metal gets deposited over the cathode.
Metals obtained from the process of electrolytic reduction are pure in form.
Refining of Metals :-
Metal are obtain have lots of impurities can be remove by electrolytic refining .
copper is obtain using this method
anode :- slab of impure copper
cathode :- slab of pure copper
solution :- solution of copper sulphate with some dilute sulphuric acid
from anode copper ions are released in the solution and equivalent amount of copper from solution is deposited at cathode .
impurities containing silver and gold gets deposited at the bottom of anode as anode mug
corrosion occurs how to prevent it :-
Corrosion: generally metal are react with oxygen present in air and form a layer around him this layer is oxide layer of such metal is known as corrosion of metals it happen when surround is acidic or moisture
for example silver react with sulphur and make black substance around it is silver sulphide
copper react with carbon dioxide in air and make a green colour substance around it its called copper carbonate
Rusting of Iron: Rusting of iron is the most common form of corrosion. When iron articles like the gate, grill, fencing, etc. come in contact with moisture present in the air, the upper layer of iron turns into iron oxide. Iron oxide is brown-red in colour and is known as Rust. The phenomenon is called Rusting of Iron.
If rusting is not prevented in time, the whole iron article would turn into iron oxide. This is also known as Corrosion of Iron. Rusting of iron gives a huge loss every year.
Prevention of corrosions :- there are some method to prevent corrosions
its can be prevents by painting, oiling, greasing, galvanising, chrome plating, anodising and making alloys .
Lets discuss about alloys :-
metals and non metals how alloys are made the topic cover in 10th class
Alloys: the mixture of two or more metals are called alloys its a homogeneus mixture
Types of alloys
Ferrous alloys: An alloy in which iron (Fe) is present.
For example : manganese steel Fe = 86% ; Mn = 13% ; C = 1% and Nickle steel Fe = 98% ; Ni = 2% .
Non-ferrous alloys: An alloy does not contain iron. For example : Brass Cu = 80% ; Zn = 20%, and Bronze Cu = 90% ; Sn = 10%
Amalgams: An alloy in which mercury (Hg) is present. For example Sodium amalgams [Na(Hg)] and Zinc amalgams [Zn(Hg)].
Properties of an Alloy
Alloys are stronger than the metal from which they are obtained.
It is harder than the constituent metals.
More resistance to corrosion.
The melting point of alloys is lower than the constituent metals.
Example: Solder [Sn(80%) + Pb(50%)] has lower m. p. than Pb and Sn.
The electrical conductivity of alloys is lower than the constituent metals.
Some examples of Alloys
Brass: [80% Cu + 20% Zn ]
Bronze: [90% Cu + 20% Sn]
Solder: [50% Pb + 50% Sn]
Duralumin: [95% Al + 4% Cu + 0.5% Mg + 0.5 Mn]
Steel: [99.95% Fe + 0.05% C]
Stainless steel: [74% Fe + 18% Cr + 8% Ni]
Magnesium: [95% Al + 5% Mg]
German Silver: [60% Cu + 20% Zn + 20% Ni]
Alloys of Gold: Pure gold is said to be of 24 carats. Gold is alloyed with a small amount of silver or copper to make it hard.
Now chapter is ended i hope you guys enjoying to read class 10 metals and non metals from cbse textbook .