Hello Readers of my blog how are i hope you all are good Today i am going to share another an important chapter of class 10th science chemical reaction and equation i write in the form of notes so you can easily understand all the concept . All the things cover from the ncert and cbse pattern.
Chemical reaction and equation notes
What do you understand by chemical reaction :- When two or more chemical substance is mix together they react with each other and form another chemical substance is known as chemical reaction .
for example :- rusting of iron , rusting of copper, curd and respiration digestion etc.
The property of new chemical is properly different from chemicals were mix .In the chemical reaction chemical change take place.
Therefore ,The chemical which are mix together or take place in chemical reaction is called reactant. Similarly, The chemical which are form as a new chemical is name product.
for example Mg + O = MgO where mg and O is reactant and MgO is product
The reaction between magnesium and oxygen to form a magnesium oxide
Magnesium ribbon have a layer of magnesium carbonate at surface. So we must removed it by using sand paper after remove the layer it can react with air
|Substance take place in chemical reaction is called reactants||A new substance is form after the reaction is called product|
|ex:- mg O||ex:- MgO|
Lets discuss about the properties of chemical reaction :-
Here is some properties of chemical reaction are as follow:-
Gas were form :-In the chemical reaction is happen a gas form with it, In the reaction of metal and acid the hydrogen gas were released for example :- Zn + Hcl = Zncl + H
Colour changing :- In the chemical reaction the colour of original substance can be change for example when we put citric acid and potassium permanganate solution the colour of purple solution turn into colourless .
Change in state :- When chemical reaction is happen the substance can be change their state for example A candle when we burn it chemical reaction will happen and the candle melt down its comes solid to liquid and after sometime its convert into gas.
Change in temperature :- Likewise The chemical reaction between limestone and water must b classified as change in temperature of substance . Reaction between them occurs heat.
Precipitation :- Such as The chemical reaction between sulphuric acid and barium chloride solution is characterise by the formation of a white precipitate of barium sulphate.
What is chemical equation ?
The symbolic representation of a chemical reaction is a chemical equation for example
A+B ——-> C + D in this reaction A and B is a reactant and C and D is product
Reactants are always written on left side with the sign of + Between them similarly the product always written on right side with the plus sign between them .
Arrow between the reactant and product show the direction of reaction occurs in case arrow is work like separation between them
Balanced chemical reaction -: In a balanced chemical reaction the number of atom in both in reactant and product are same ex Zn + H2SO4 ——–> ZnSO4 + H2
In this equation, numbers of zinc, hydrogen and sulphate are equal on both sides, so it is a Balanced Chemical Equation.
According to the Law of Conservation of Mass, mass can neither be create nor destroy in a chemical reaction. To obey this law, the total mass of elements present in reactants must be equal to the total mass of elements present in products.
Skeletal chemical equation :- The chemical equation which simplify represent the symbols and formulas of reactants and products taking part in reaction is name as skeletal reaction of chemical equation . In this reaction number of atom in reactant and product is not equal .
for example burning of magnesium ribbon Mg+ O2 ——-> MgO is a unbalanced chemical equation
Symbols represent :- Gaseous state is represent by symbol (g).
Liquid state is represent by symbol (l).
Solid state is written by symbol (s).
Aqueous solution is represent by symbol (aq).
Writing the condition in which reaction take place: The condition is generally represent above and/or below the arrow of a chemical equation.
The symbol represent the physical state or direction of reaction which made chemical equation easy to handle
Type of chemical reaction :-
There are different type of chemical reaction for class 10th as follow
double displacement reaction
exothermic and endothermic reaction
|combustion||AB + O2 ——> Oxide of A and B|
|Combination||A + B ——-> C|
|Decomposition||AB ———> A + B|
|Displacement||A + BC ——> AC =|
|Double displacement||AB + CD ——-> AD + CB|
Reaction with details :-
Combination reaction :- When two or more reactant combine to form a single product this type of reaction called Combination reaction
For example :- mg + o —–> mgo
H + O2 ——–> H2O
C + O2 ———> CO2
Decomposition reaction ;- A single compound decomposed into two or more substance is called decomposition reaction .
for example :- 2feSo4 ——> fe2 O3 + So2 + So3
CaCo3 ——–> CaO + Co2
Types of decomposition reaction
Thermal decomposition ;- When decomposition is happen by adding heat is known as thermal decomposition . for example ;- 2Pb(NO3)2———> 2PbO + NO2 + O2
Electrolytic decomposition :- When decomposition is happen by using of electricity is know as electrolytic decomposition for example.
Photolysis or Photo Decomposition Reaction: Reactions in which a compound decomposes because of sunlight are known as Photolysis or Photo Decomposition Reaction. for ex :- AgCl ——–> Ag + Cl
Displacement reacition :- In this type of reaction more reactive metal displace the low reactive metal from its salt solution its also known as substitution reaction.
for example :- Zn(s) + CuSO4 → ZnSO4 + Cu
fe + ZnSo4 → feSo4 + Zn
Double displacement reaction :- Reactions in which ions are exchange between two reactants forming new compounds are called Double Displacement Reactions.
for example :- Bacl + Na2SO4 —–> BaSO4 + Na2Cl
Oxidation reaction :- When oxygen were add and loose of electron and removal of hydrogen gas are happened in any chemical reaction is called oxidation reaction for example any metal oxide metal + oxygen —–> metal oxide
Reduction reaction :– when hydrogen were add and gain of electron and removal of oxygen are happened in any chemical reaction is called Reduction reaction for example CuO + H2 ——-> Cu + H2O
Redox reaction :- In a reaction both oxidation and reduction were happen is called redox reaction for example CuO + H2 ——-> Cu + H2O
Exothermic reaction :- In exothermic reaction heat will produce or evolved for example C + O2 —-> Co2 + heat
Endothermic reaction :- In endothermic reaction heat will absorbed for example CaCo3 ——-> CaO + Co2
Neutrilization reaction :- when acid or base react with each other its form neutrilization reaction for example HCl + NaOH —-> H2O + NaCl
Effects of oxidation in real life
Corrosion :- When metal are attack with atmospheric gases and make a slow reaction its called corrosion its happen due to the moisture oxygen sulphur and other gases reacts with metal and make a layer in metal this is called corrosion of metals . ex — rusting of iron and corrosion in copper and sulphide layer on silver
Rusting of iron :- When iron react with oxygen its make a layer of red colour substance called iron oxide . fe + o —-> feO it causes weakness in iron and steel
Prevention :- By painting , by greasing and oiling , By galvanisation.
Corrosion of copper :- Copper react with carbon dioxide and make a layer of green colour substance called copper carbonate for example Cu + Co2 —–> CuCo3
Corrosion of Silver :- Silver react with sulphur and make a layer of black colour substance called silver sulphide for example Ag + S —–> AgS
Rancidity :- When oil and fats were oxide is name rancidity it causes bed smell and spoils the food product
Prevention :- by adding nitrogen, by vaccum packing and by cooling or freezing
Here we finish the chapter 1 i hope you guys understand about the chapter 1 chemical reaction and equation