Hello readers how are you i hope you all are fine today i am going tell about the a science chapter of carbon and its compounds class 10th so lets get start .
So what you think about carbon it is harmful or precious first i will say its rare because only 0.02% of carbon available in our earth surface and 0.03% available in earth atmosphere in the form of carbon dioxide . So lets discuss about the importance of carbon and its compounds according to class 10th .
What is carbon ? how its compounds form class 10th
Carbon :- It is a chemical element which atomic number is 6 and its electronic configuration is 2, 4 presence in the form of diamond and graphite in earth surface and and also occurs in the form of coal and charcoal .
The symbol of carbon is C and the carbon have different form an every form have different properties . Carbon is non metal which is find in solid state at room temperature .
Firstly discuss about compound ,there are two types of compound first is organic compound and second is inorganic compound . The compound which is made up with hydrogen and carbon is called organic compound .
Covalent bond :- when two atom share their pair of electron to form a bond between them is called covalent Bond. Therefore, Carbon forms covalent Bond , carbon is find in two state in free state its form graphite , diamond and fullerene and in combined state its form carbon dioxide glucose coal carbonates etc.
Types of covalent bond :-
single covalent bond :- when atom share the one pair of electron in a molecules for example Cl2 , f2 etc.
double covalent bond :- when atom share the two pair of electron in a molecules for example O2 Co2 etc .
triple covalent bond :- when atom share the three pair of electron in a molecules for example N2 etc .
Allotropes of a compound :- elements which have different form but have same chemical properties is called allotropes of a compound ,The physical properties of this elements is also different. Hence, Carbon have three allotropes :- diamond, graphite and fullerene.
Diamond :- It is very strong form of carbon made up with 3 dimensional structure with strong covalent bond of carbon . Due to this Its nature is very hard with high melting point. Its shine when its come to light . its very rare and precious elements which is mostly use to make jewellery , also used in drill and cutting machine because of its hard nature . It is come in tough elements in earth.
Graphite :- Graphite forms when a carbon atoms make a bond with other 3 carbon molecules to form a hexagonal rings. Its weak and the made with van dar wall forces . it used in making pencil, use as lubricant and its is also a good conductor of electricity.
Fullerene :- Fullerene forms when carbon structure make a bond and form a structure like sphere its structure is look like a football . but some times its make pentagon and heptagon rings .
Electron dot structure
According to the chapter carbon and its compounds of class 10th electron don structure are :-
It is a rule of octet where we represent a chemical bond of two atoms by share their pair of electrons in picture form as a dotted structure for example formation of hydrogen atoms, formation of water molecule formation of carbon dioxide.
Properties of carbon
There are two important properties of carbon catenation and tetravalency.
Catenation is a property of carbon by which carbon atoms can link one another via covalent bond and can form long chains, closed ring or branched chains etc.
its happen due to size of atoms are small and the good strength between carbon atoms .
Example :- Propane , Butane , Methylpropane , Dimethypropane ,cyclohexane
Tetravalency :- Carbon atoms can be linked by single, double or triple bonds. Carbon has a valency of 4 due to which it is known to have tetravalency. Due to this one carbon atom can bond with other 4 carbon atoms, with other atoms also such as Oxygen, Nitrogen etc.
Firstly, Hydrocarbons :- the compound which is made up with hydrogen and carbon its called hydrocarbons. There are two types of hydrocarbons :- saturated and unsaturated
saturated Hydrocarbons example methane , ethane, propane, butane its consist single bond between carbon atoms . Alkanes
unsaturated hydrocarbons :- Unsaturated Hydrocarbons are the one with double or triple bonds between the carbon atoms .hexane , heptane, octane , nonane , decane
Isomerism: Compounds having the same molecular formula but different structural formula and properties are known as Isomers and this phenomenon is known as Isomerism.
Structural Isomerism: Compounds having the same molecular formula but different structures are called Structural isomers. Example: Isomers of butane
Homologous series are describe in chapter 4 class 10th carbon and its compounds are as follow:-
Also In this Series of compounds in which same functional group substitutes for the hydrogen atom in a chain of carbon.
Characteristic of Homologous Series The successive members in homologous series differ by CH2 unit or 14 mass unit.
Hence, Members of given homologous series have the same functional group.
All the members of homologous series shows similar chemical properties.
|homologous series||general formula||functional group||example|
|alkanes||C n + H 2n + n||methane|
|alkenes||C n + H 2n||C = C||ethene |
|alcohols||C n + H 2n + 1 OH||-OH||methanol|
|carboxylic acid||C n + H 2n+1 CooH||-CooH||methanoic acid|
Functional group :- An atom or group of atoms present in a molecule which largely determines its chemical properties are called Functional Group
|Functional group||Formula of functional group|
Nomenclature of Carbon compound :-
Some important point about organic compound :- it is very hard to remember common name of millions of compound, so our IUPAC given certain rule for it identify the number of carbon atom in compound the functional group.It can be indicate by suffix or prefix.
Also Cyclic hydrocarbon is designated by prefix cyclo, If there are two or more different substituents they are listed in alphabetical order
If the same substituent occurs more than once, the location of each point on which the substituent occurs is given
|Alkyne||-yne||HC triple bond CH|
|Nitrile||-ile||—C triple bond N|
Chemical properties of carbon and its compound ;-
Hey readers if you are reading this then definetly you learn most of thing about carbon and its compound
Combustion ;- Carbons and its compound are is as a fuel in the presence of oxygen its release energy .Therefore ,Saturated hydro carbon compound produce blue and soft sooty flame and unsaturated hydro carbon compound produce yellow sooty flame.
CH3CH2OH + O2 → CO2+ H2O + Heat and light
CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2O+ Heat and light
oxidation :- Oxidizing of alcohol to convert in their acid by using oxidizing agent .Potassium permanganate, potassium dichomate can be use as oxidizing agent.
Addition reaction :- Also called hydrogenation reaction used to convert oil into ghee. Addition of hydrogen in presence of catalyst such as nickel or palladium.
Catalyst :- Substances that cause a reaction to occur or proceeds to different rate without consuming in it are called a catalys For example; Ni, Pt, Pd, etc.
substitute reaction :- atom of hydrocarbon replaced by the chlorine, bromine etc is known as substitute reaction .
Other important carbon compound :-
Ethanol :- Its commonly used in ethyl alcohol . properties of ethanol is colourless inflammable and miscible with water it no give any effect on litmus paper .its melting point is low .its give dehydrating reaction.
Dehydrating agent: Substances which removes water from ethanol (alcohols) is known as Dehydrating agent For example; Cone. H2SO4.
Ethanoic acid is a colourless When pure ethanoic acid freeze like ice, it is known as Glacial Acetic Acid. It is formed at a temperature of about 16.6 degree centigrade
Ethanoic Acid/Acetic acid when reacts with ethanol it forms an ester is called esterfication .Therefore Ester can be identified by its sweet smell.
Reaction of ester with strong base is used to form soap. This is known as Saponification. Acetic acid also reacts with strong base to form sodium acetate and water.
NaOH + CH3COOH + CH3COONa + H2O
Soap :- Sodium and potassium salt of carboxylic acid is known as soap .it is a long chain of fatty acid . General formula: RCOO–Na+
They work most effectively in soap water.
Detergents :- Detergents are sulphonate or ammonium salt of long chain of carboxylic acid. They can work effectively on soft as well as hard water.
Cleansing Action of Soaps and Detergents
Cleansing action of soaps and detergents is due to ability to minimize the surface tension of water, to emulsify oil or grease and to hold them in a suspension of water.
When soap dissolves in water, it forms soap anions and soap cations.In case The hydrophobic part of soaps and detergents are soluble in grease and hydrophilic part is soluble in water.
Soap and Micelle Formation
When dirt and grease are mixed with soap water, soap molecules arrange them in tiny clusters known as Micelle.
The hydrophilic part sticks to the water and form outer surface of the micelle and hydrophobic part binds to oil and grease.
Difference between soap and detergent
|sodium and potassium salts long chain of fatty acid||amonium and sulphonate long chain of fatty acid|
|Ionic part of the soap is —COO–Na+||Ionic part of detergent is —OSO3-Na+.|
|not useful in hard water||useful in hardwater|
|It is biodegradable||It is non biodegradable|
So the readers chapter is now over i hope you understand all the concept about the chapter carbon and its compound
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