Acid and base class 10th notes Easy and shorts

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What is Acid and bases thier Properties for class 10th ? Do you know about acid or base its very important for our daily life in this post I cover the Properties of Acid and base class 10th

Acid and base class 10th  with properties
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What is Acid and their properties ? Class 10th

Acid :- Acid is a chemical which contain hydrogen atoms .It is give the protons and hydrogens ions and take electrons. If concentration of hydrogen ions is higher in acid then it is high acidic otherwise its low acidic. Acids are sour in taste and give  H+ in water .Its turns blue litmus to red .

Natural Acids and their source:-

Citric acid: lemon, orange, and citrus fruit.

Acetic acid /Ethanoic acid: vinegar.

Tartaric acid: Tamarind

Oxalic acid: Tomato

Lactic acid: Sour milk, curd, etc.

Formic acid: Ant sting, nettle sting

Ascorbic acid: guava, amla, etc.

Difference between strong and weak Acid

Strong Acid Weak Acid
All minerals acid are strongAll organic and natural acid are weak
Except= carbonic acid——————————-
Ex:-sulphuric acid, HCL, Nitric Acid, Phosphoric AcidEx:- Tartaric acid, Oxalic acid, Formic acid, acetic acid, etc.
Acid and bases difference and types

Dilution :- When we mix water in acid its called dilution of acid, Its an exothermic process

Note:- Do not mix the water direct into the acid because its to dangerous , always mix acid in water slowly.

What is base and their types ?

Acid and base class 10th  with properties
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Base :- Base is a chemical which contain hydroxides atom (OH) , It is donates electron and take protons in aqueous solution . They feels slippery in touch and Bitter in taste ,They react with acid to form salt . It is turn red litmus to blue , feels like a soapy texture.

Examples of base :- Washing soda, caustic soda , Potassium hydroxide , calcium hydroxide etc . Metal oxide , Metal Hydroxide , and Metal carbonates all are basic in nature.

Types of bases :- bases are divided into two category on their soluble bases :

Bases which are soluble in water is called alkalis solution.

Bases which are non soluble in water is called Base.

Alkalis :- We know that All Metal oxide , Metal Hydroxide , and Metal carbonates are basic in nature and there are group of alkalis metal and earth alkalis method for Example Lithium, sodium, potassium, etc. are called alkali metals. Beryllium, magnesium, calcium etc. are called alkaline earth metals. so group of this metal converted into metal oxide and hydroxide is called alkalis Ex Sodium + O = Sodium Oxide , Sodium + OH = Sodium hydroxide is a alkali solution.

Difference between Acid and bases for Class 10th

Acid Bases
Sour in tasteBitter in taste.
Give H+ hydrogen ion with waterGive (OH-) hydroxide ion with water
Turns blue litmus to red Turns red litmus to Blue
Conduct electricity Conduct electricity
Produce salt and hydrogen gas when react with metalProduce salt and water when react with metal
Ex – Hydrochloric acid (HCl)
Sulphuric acid  (H2SO4)
Nitric acid (HNO3)
Ex- Sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
Potassium hydroxide (KOH)
Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2)
Acid and base class 10th with properties

Acid rain :- When the level of sulphur and nitrogen increase in atmosphere it form sulphuric acid and nitric acid with the reaction of water and converted into Acid rain . It is happen due to burning of fossil fuels and increasing the pollution , when fossil fuel burn sulphur and nitrogen gases were release . The historical monument get reacted with it the Taj mahal because its made up with marble and react with sulphuric and nitric acid present in air and get corroded .

There are two Theory of acid and bases were classified :-

Arrhenius Theory Bronsted Lowry Theory
When acid dissolve in water give H+ and H3O + ions Acid is a H+ ion donor
When base dissolve in water give OH- ions Base is a H+ ion acceptor
Acid and base class 10th with properties

What is Indicator?

Acid and base class 10th  with properties
image source commons.wikimedia.org

Indicator :- A indicator is a instrument or chemical material which help to indicate the difference between the acid and base, when we put together with any acid or base its colour and odour or smell changed.

commonly used indicator are given below :-

Litmus paper :- Made with up the sea algae called lichens .Its colour is purple and available in strips which are available in red and blue colour

Solution Colour
Neutral Purple
Acid Red
BaseBlue
Acid and base class 10th with properties

if solution in basic nature it convert red litmus paper to blue and solution is acidic it convert blue litmus to red .

MethylOrange :- It is a chemical which help to indicate the acid and base ,

SolutionColour
NeutralOrange
AcidRed
BaseYellow
Acid and bases difference and types

Phenolphthalein:- It is also a chemical indicator

SolutionColour
NeutralColour less
AcidColour less
BasePink
Acid and base class 10th with properties

Reaction of Acid and Bases :-

With metals :- When metal react with acid its produce salt and hydrogen gas , its a exothermic process so heat will also produce

Acid + metals = salt + hydrogen + heat

ex:- 2HCl(aq)+Mg(s)→MgCl2(aq)+H2(g) (↑)

H2SO4(aq) + Fe(s) → FeSO4(aq) + H2(g)(↑)

With Metals :- When metal react with base its produce salt and hydrogen gas

Base + metal =salt + hydrogen gas

ex :- 2NaOH+Zn→Na2ZnO2+H2 (↑)

2NaOH + 2Al + 2H2O ⇨ 2NaAlO2 + 2H2

Different reactions with different Elements Acid and bases

With metal oxide and hydroxide With metal carbonate and bicarbonate
Acid + metal oxide and hydroxide → salt + water + heatAcid + metal carbonate or bicarbonate →  salt + water + carbon dioxide
Ex :- H2SO4+MgO→MgSO4+H2O
2HCl+Mg (OH) 2→MgCl2+2H2O
Ex :-2HCl+CaCO3→CaCl2+H2O+CO2
H2SO4+Mg (HCO3)2→MgSO4+2H2O+2CO2
Metal oxide and hydroxide is basic in nature carbon dioxide gas is release always
Acid + base is a neutralise solution

Non metal oxide and hydroxide is acidic in nature so when we put base and non metal oxide its produce heat and water.

Base + Non-metal oxide →  salt + water + heat

ex:- 2NaOH+CO2→Na2CO3+H2O

What is PH scale ? Universal Indicator

image source commons.wikimedia.org

Ph scale :- It is a scale which determine the concentrate of hydrogen ion in a solution ,P stand for power and H stand for hydrogen ion , Ph scale show the power of acid it have value 0 to 14 ,

0 value show that solution is highly acidic and 7 value show is neutral and 14 value show its highly basic

In decreasing order 7 to 0 it indicate the power of acid more decreasing the more is acidic

In increasing order 7 to 14 it indicate the basic nature of solution more increasing the more is basic.

Simple language:- Ph scale show the power of solution how much its basic and acidic

Importance of pH in everyday life :-

1. pH sensitivity of plants and animals:-plants and animals are very sensitive to Ph, Important life process such as digestion , function of organs , enzymes and hormone happen at certain Ph value

2. pH of a soil:-Ph level of soil decide the growth of plant or crops, the soil with ph level 6.5 to 7.0 is good for plant

3. pH in the digestive system :-The process of digestion happens at a specific pH in our stomach which is 1.5 – 4.
The pH of the interaction of enzymes, while food is being digested, is influenced by HCl in our stomach.

4. pH in tooth decay:-Its happen when tooth affected by acidic environment Ph level 5.5 or below

5. pH of self-defence by animals and plants:-Its a way where the animals and plant use for protect themselves, they used it for their defence .Insects like bee, ant were used it for protect themselves they secreted the highly acidic substance to their predators when they threatened mostly insects have formic acid which produce burning sensation and pain.

How to acid and bases were made :-

Acid :- Non metal oxide + water = acid

SO2(g)+H2O(l)→H2SO3(aq) = sulfur dioxide + water = Sulfurous acid
SO3(g)+H2O(l)→H2SO4(aq) = sulfite + water = Sulfuric acid
4NO2(g)+2H2O(l)+O2(g)→4HNO3(aq) = nitrogen dioxide + water = Nitric acid

Note :- non metal oxides are acidic in nature

Metal + halogens = acid

H2(g)+Cl2(g)→2HCl(g) = hydrogen + chlorine = hydrogen chlorine
HCl(g)+H2O(l)→HCl(aq) = hydrogen chlorine + water = hydrochloric acid

Halogens :- Halogens are the nonmetals. At room temperature, fluorine and chlorine are gases and bromine is a liquid. Iodine and astatine are solids. Halogens are very reactive, the reactivity decreases from fluorine to astatine. Halogens do not exist in the elemental form in nature. Astatine isotopes are radioactive with short half-lives.

Metallic salt + conc. sulphuric acid → salt + more volatile acid
2NaCl(aq)+H2SO4(aq)→Na2SO4(aq)+2HCl(aq)
2KNO3(aq)+H2SO4(aq)→K2SO4(aq)+2HNO3(aq)

Base :- Metal + oxygen → metallic oxide
4Na(s)+O2(g)→2Na2O(s)
2Mg(s)+O2(g)→2MgO(s)

Metal + water → base or alkali + hydrogen
Zn(s) + H2O(steam)→ ZnO(s)+ H2(g)

 Few metallic oxides + water → alkali
Na2O(s)+H2O(l)→2NaOH(aq)

 Ammonia + water → ammonium hydroxide
NH3(g)+H2O(l)→NH4OH(aq)

Lets talk about salt produce with Acid and bases

Salt :- A salt is a combination of acid and salt where acid is form of anion and base is in form of cation , the reaction between acid and base is called neutralization reaction

Ex:– KCl,NaNO3,CaSO4,etc

Nacl is sodium chloride which is also called common salt its is used for cooking

Note :- if anion and cation are same in salt they belong to same family of salt

Salt Ph level and nature

Reaction Salt produce Ph level
strong acid + strong base neutral in nature Ph = 7
weak acid + strong base basic in nature Ph > 7
strong acid + weak base Acidic in nature Ph < 7
Acid and base class 10th with properties

Note :- if both are weak then the salt were determined after the Ph test

Different type of daily based thing how they made

Preparation of sodium hydroxide :

Chlor-alkali process :- Do you know about brine brine is Aqueous solution of sodium chloride , when we pass electricity from it decomposes to form sodium hydroxide , this process is called Chlor-alkali process .

The chemical equation : 2NaCl(aq) + 2H2O(l) → 2NaOH(aq) + Cl2 (g) + H2(g)

When electricity is passed From the solution of sodium chloride (called brine), Chlorine gas is given off at the anode, and hydrogen gas at the cathode. Sodium hydroxide solution is formed near the cathode.

Products of chlor-alkali Process:

(1) Sodium Hydroxide also known as caustic soda

(2) Chlorine

(3) Hydrogen Gas

Use of sodium hydroxide :- De greasing metal , soaps and detergents , Paper making ,Making in artificial process

Use of hydrogen :- For fuel , Margarine , Manufacture for ammonium for fertiliser

Chlorine :- For cleaning water , for making PVC, CFCs , also used for disinfection

Preparation of Bleaching powder :-

When we put calcium hydroxide and chlorine together we get the Bleaching Powder

Chemical Equation of Bleaching powder :- Ca(OH)2(aq)+Cl2(g)→CaOCl2(aq)+H2O(l)

Chemical name :- CaOCl2(aq)

Note :- when we mix into water it release the chlorine which is responsible for bleaching

Preparation of baking soda

Solvay process :- Process of mixing of lime stone and brine and ammonia together :-

Chemical Equation :-
Step one Limestone is heated: CaCO3→CaO+CO2

Step two CO2 is passed through a concentrated solution of sodium chloride and ammonia:
NaCl(aq)+NH3(g)+CO2(g)+H2O(l)→NaHCO3(aq)+NH4Cl(aq)

Chemical name :– NaHCO3

Uses:- Textile industry, Paper industry, Disinfactent

Preparation of washing soda :-

same as baking soda

Chemical Equation :-
Step one Limestone is heated: CaCO3→CaO+CO2

Step two CO2 is passed through a concentrated solution of sodium chloride and ammonia:
NaCl(aq)+NH3(g)+CO2(g)+H2O(l)→NaHCO3(aq)+NH4Cl(aq)

Chemical name :– NaHCO3

uses :-soap glass and paper industries , water softening , domestic cleaner

Preparation of Plaster of paris

When we heat the gypsum at 373 k it give us plaster of paris

Chemical equation :-CaSO4.2H2O (s) on heating at 100°C (373K) gives CaSO4. ½ H2O and 3/2 H2O

Gypsum + heat = POP

Chemical name :-CaSO4. ½ H2

Use :- for plaster and medical use

Some important Thing do it by yourself :-

1. How can you check the presence of hydogen gas in reaction ?

2. What reaction is use in fire extinguisher ? how it work

3. What is ions ?

here the ending of chapter Acid and bases and salt

I hope your all doubts were clear if any then comment down below

For the revision of more chapter stay with us :- chapter 11

12 thoughts on “Acid and base class 10th notes Easy and shorts”

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